The files below are Bible and Book of Mormon chapters arranged according to Hebrew Chiasmus and Poetic Parallelism form.
These pages are my personal interpretation of how the parallel forms should appear intermixed with the works of others.
My efforts are continuing and I'll update this page as I analyze new material.
If you only have just a little time, read Alma 36 and 2 Nephi 29 as these entire chapters are in chiasmus form, 2 Nephi 25 is also amazing with many smaller forms. Next look at Leviticus 24 and Psalms 78 for good examples in the Old Testiment.
Information contained on this site should not be interpreted as an official position of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.
Book of Mormon Chiasmus and Hebrew Poetic Parallelisms
A great source of parallel form is the link below where the entire Book of Mormon has been arranged according to Hebrew parallel form. However, I’ve noticed that the document did not capture all of the forms, as I have discovered several other interesting parallel forms that I’ve included in my versions of B of M chapters.
Poetic Parallelisms in the Book of Mormon
1 Nephi Whole Book Chiasmus
1 Nephi 17
2 Nephi 2
2 Nephi 9
2 Nephi 11
2 Nephi 25
2 Nephi 26
2 Nephi 28
2 Nephi 29
2 Nephi 33
Whole book of Mosiah Chiasmus
Must read information about King Benjamin's address. King Benjamin and the feast of tabernacles
Mosiah 15 and 16 (Abinadi's message to King Noah)
Useful information about Alma 5 Step by step guide
Alma 5 has illusions to the Day of Atonement or Yom Kippur Day of Atonement
See also Alma 5 (50 Questions)
Alma 12 and Alma 13 combined then appended with other scriptures
Must read information about Alma 36-42. The Sons of the Passover
3 Nephi 11
3 Nephi 12
Moroni 4 and 5 Sacrement prayers chiasmus and Parallelism
Below are images of some of my favorite Book of Mormon Chiasmus sections with some of the strongest structures
2 Nephi 25 has many amazing structures including this very symetric chiasmus structure at the beginning
And this one at the end
This one is in Alma 41 and has a strong double return and is very unique
Bible Chiasmus and Hebrew Poetic Parallelisms
Below is a good reference for Bible Chiasmus structures.
Biblical Chiasm Exchange
John 1 (Christ the light and life of the world)
John 6 (Christ the bread of life)
John 13 (See, hear, understand, Christ in parables)
Chiasmus is a form of Hebrew parallelism used anciently. The word chiasmus is derived from the Greek letter chi (X).
In the English language we read from left to right and then top to bottom and thus the X relates to the structure of chiasmus as follows with the ‘A’ and ‘B’ being matching words or concepts within the subject material.
This would be read as
A term, then
B term, then
Some of the best examples of the Chiasmus form may be found in Leviticus 24:13-23, Alma 36 (entire chapter), and Alma 41: 13-14.
As another thought of why the ancient Hebrews may have used Chiasmus as a literary form in scriptures when observing the Menorah candlestick which sat within the ancient temple. Note that the shape of the candlestick may be observed to have the same shape as a chiasmus.
I suggest the following link for furthing reading on Chiasmus -> Chiasmus in the Book of Mormon
There are other Hebrew parallel forms that are also used in the scriptures. Words or phrases can be parallel by appearing as synonyms or near-synonyms (heart/soul, statutes/commandments, preacher/teacher); repetitions of identical phrases (cry unto him/cry unto him); antonyms (holy/unholy, poor/rich); complementaries (bow/arrows, river/sea); inflections of the same root (to judge/a judge/judgment/judgment seat); gradations (holy/most holy, thousands/tens of thousands); superordinates (wine/drink, gold/metal); or reciprocals (to retire/to sleep, to eat/to be full, sin/pain of conscience).
The poetic patterns serve to emphasize messages, define and expand them, make them more memorable, and structure them. When the prophets introduced an idea, then repeated it in different words, their hearers could more easily grasp their meaning. Also anciently only a few persons in a community were literate and could read and write and thus parallel forms may have served as an aid for scripture memorization for the general masses.
Some specific names have been given to some of the parallel forms and appear below.
Simple synonymous parallelism is where the second phrase repeats or echoes the idea of the first. The idea thus received a double emphasis. Isaiah was a master of this form where he practically repeats every statement in his whole book twice using differing phrasing.
Simple synthetic parallelism consists of two phrases in which the second explains or adds something new or instructive to the first. It can also establish relationships between actions.
Contrasting ideas compares a subject or idea with another to create a contrast between the two.
Antithetical parallelism is where contrasting ideas appear as opposites.
Simple or repeated alternate parallelism is where longer forms contain two or more repetitions alternating with each other (A-B/A-B pattern). In this formation, the “A” phrases are identical, synonymous, or closely related, as are the “B” phrases.
Extended alternate parallelism adds additional alternating lines, such as A-B-C/A-B-C or A-B-C-D/A-B-C-D. This parallelism typically delivers more complex messages than the other two,
The shape of the Menorah may also be observed to exhibit the extended alternate parallelism form
Parallelism of numbers are parallel when they are repeated or given in multiples.
Regular, or circular, repetition is found when a phrase is repeated at intervals in a longer passage, as if the message keeps coming back in a circular motion to the key phrase.
Staircase parallelism is where the second member repeats verbatim the beginning of the first member and then adds other statements to expound on the concept.
Climax parallelism is when the same word or words are found at the end of one phrase and at the beginning of the next. The continuation of thought from phrase to phrase adds power to the discourse, while also connecting lines into an inseparable body.
A more lengthy a explanative article of the above forms is called, Research and Perspectives: Hebrew Literary Patterns in the Book of Mormon, By Donald W. Parry and can be found at the following link:
Research and Perspectives:
At the bottom of the document above there is a list of many B of M scriptures that have parallel form. I've made a document that lists and marks the scriptures for easy reverence and included it here -> More Parallelisms in the Book of Mormon
Below are Book of Mormon chapters where I compared topics and verses between the concepts in the Bible and Book of Mormon.
Some have claimed that Joseph Smith simply copied sections of the Bible to make the Book of Mormon. There certainly are direct comparisons between both books.
In my studies I noted that if I were re-hashing the Bible to make my own story, there are things directly before or after similar sections in the Bible that I would have also brought over, so I think the items left out are as interesting as those included.
Also, I noted that when I read the concepts in the Book of Mormon the concepts always come through more clearly and the message of Christ as a central focus was more apparent.
Many of these B of M concepts are similar to scriptures that come from all over the Bible and if they were just re-hashed the creator would have had to know where each quote came from before the days of word processing, understood the concepts completely and in many cases very differently than religious thinkers of Joseph's day, be able to write new stuff seamlessly, mix in Hebrew customs and concepts, and write all of it according to ancient Hebrew parallel and chiasmus structures.
When you take all of the above tasks into mind the idea that 21 year old farm boy Joseph Smith could have created the Boom of Mormon, the possibility gets smaller and smaller that he could have accomplished this.
Alma 5 compare
Alma 11 compare
2 Nephi 2 compare
Joseph in Egypt
1 Nephi 3 Nephi Slays Laban
Jacob 5 olive tree alligory
Moroni 10 compare
Alma 12 & 42 - Adam Eve
3 Nephi 15 other sheep
3 Nephi 20
3 Nephi 21
Moroni 7 charity
faith hope charity
1 Corinthians 15
I did some reading on the travels of Nephi and Lehi's family through the Arabian Pensula. Through the magic of Google Earth I've collected some pictures of the main places mentioned in the Book of Mormon.
Valley of Lamen and River of Lemuel, Wadi Tayyib Al Ism is about 3-4 days camel ride south of the tip of the Red Sea. The palm trees seen in the images produce dates or "fruit" mentioned in 1 Nephi. Google has stored photo spheres and I suggest clicking into them as they present a wonderful 360 degree view of this area.
Valley of Lamen and River of Lemuel
Below are a few images from the page above
Candidate for Shazer... Ash Sharmah is about 3-4 days camel ride South East of Wadi Tayyib Al Ism. There is good hunting in the mountains in this area. A possible translation for the word Shazer is a place of trees. I couldn't find any photo spheres or close up images of this area.
Below is an image from the page above
Candidate for Bountiful... Wadi Sayq. In this location there are clifs by the ocean, a mountain, large trees, fruit, honey, ore for metal, and a possible inlet where a ship could be built and launched.
Land of Bountiful
Below is an image from the page above
My name is Timothy Riggs, so you know I'm just a normal guy, I'm listing my other websites below. I've also worked as an electrical engineer for the past 19 years and have two kids age 17 and 20.
Utah Magician Site
Haunted House Site